The technology that runs our charging stations has evolved significantly in recent years. The use of electric vehicles in the transportation ecosystem is becoming commonplace, today we assist in the evolution of this technology.
As a result, new industry protocols are emerging to enable new features such as interoperability. Today, more than ever, it is particularly difficult to keep up with development and ensure that technologies comply with the latest regulations and standards.
Charging point operators as well as e-mobility service providers are facing challenges related to the increasing development of charging points and electric vehicles. As a result, managing different protocols, regulations, currencies and network roaming is a growing challenge.
EV charging industry protocols and standards
Through this article, we will explain the different protocols used to charge our electric vehicles. They allow the necessary flexibility for all EVs and are necessary elements for the future development of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure.
OCPP – Open Charge Point Protocol
The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is an application protocol that enables the communication between electric vehicle charging stations and a central management system. This international open-source standard is fully independent and completely free of charge. Basically, this protocol allows charging stations to communicate with our Open E-mobility solution!
It was developed by the Open Charge Alliance (OCA) for the charging infrastructure market. It is considered as a standard for the entire industry. Indeed, it allows the interoperability of stations among charging equipment manufacturers, software and system providers but also charging network operators and research organizations. OCPP is a proven way to optimize costs while minimizing the risks associated with network infrastructure investments. OCPP provides flexibility for infrastructure operators to be compatible with EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and offers ease of access for end users.
The development of this protocol was carried out in a kind of co-creation brought together by many key industry actors in the electric vehicle industry, among them we find manufacturers of charging stations, utilities, operators and software developers.
OCPP 2.0, the latest version
The latest version, OCPP2.0.1, offers many new features. These include improved device management, transaction processing, security, smart charging capabilities, and display and messaging support. The latest version of OCPP also provides support for plugging and charging vehicles that use the ISO 15118 protocol.
OpenADR – Open Automated Demand Response
OpenADR is an open and secure protocol for interoperable information exchange to facilitate automated demand response.
It’s a protocol that is commonly used to send information and signals between different distribution system operators (DSOs), utilities and energy management and control systems such as ours. This protocol is used to balance energy demand during periods of high demand.
Version 2.0 of this protocol, OpenADR 2.0, standardizes communications on demand response (DR) and distributed energy resources. (DER). It manages automated DR/DER processes, simplifying energy management for customers while eliminating uneconomic assets.
OSCP – Open Smart Charging Protocol 1.0
OSCP is also an open protocol for communications between a charge point management system and an energy management system for site owners or distribution system operators (DSOs).
It can be used to communicate real-time prediction of the capacity of a charging network to the charging operator. Its main strength is to facilitate the intelligent charging of electric vehicles according to the capacity of the network.
Norme ISO 15118
This international standard is essential for bi-directional digital communications between electric vehicles and charging stations. It defines a Vehicle to grid (V2G) communication interface for the charging/discharging process of electric vehicles.
ISO 15118 is a key element of the “Plug and Charge” function that allows drivers to insert the charging plug, charge and then drive away when they are ready. This process is made possible by a digital certificate that is located in the vehicle. It allows communication with the Charge Point Management System (CPMS). This makes the charging process completely seamless from end to end, so it includes authentication and automatic billing. It offers a better user experience because the use of an RFID card, an application, or the use of a PIN code is no longer required.
Protocols for Roaming Platforms
OCPI – Open Charge Point Interface
The Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI) is a protocol designed for the exchange of charge point information. OCPI enables this communication between charge point operators and electric mobility service providers. Beyond the communication between these two actors, OCPI allows for scalable and automated roaming of electric vehicles.
Here are some examples of OCPI uses:
- Charge point information
- Authorization of charging sessions
- Charging rates
- Registration processing
- Intelligent pricing
eMIP – eMobility Interoperation Protocol
eMIP is a protocol provided by GIREVE, it allows the roaming of charging services. Gireve provides a charging authorization and data clearing API as well as access to a complete database of charging points.
OCHP – Open Clearing House Protocol (e-clearing.net)
The Open Clearing House Protocol (OCHP) is an open-source protocol that enables the communication between a charging management system and a clearing system in a simple and standardized way.
This protocol also allows unlimited charging of electric vehicles across charging networks through roaming. With OCHP, e-mobility service providers can connect to charging operators and providers to provide access to their own network.
This protocol is widespread in Germany and the Netherlands, indeed, e-clearing.net is an initiative supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economics and the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy.
credit : e-clearing
OICP – Open InterCharge Protocol
OICP is a protocol developed by Hubject. It’s now a communication standard implemented between the systems of various e-mobility service providers (EMSVP) and charge point operators (CPO) via the Hubject platform.
This protocol allows, among other things, the exchange of information. This exchange is based on contractual relationships between EMSP, CPO and Hubject. This allows for reliable roaming for electric car drivers.
Which protocols are compatible with the Open E-Mobility solution?
With all the protocols we have presented, we have chosen to use some and others not. Here is a small selection of the ones we use:
- The OCPP protocol is preferred for communications between charging stations and allows interoperability of charging stations with supervision.
- Self-charging, we provide a plug & charge functionality based on the Mac address of the vehicle depending on the charging station provider.
- The supervision solution is compatible with industry standards for roaming platforms: OCPI, OICP (Hubject)
- We are working with the VEDECOM institute to define the ISO 15118 standard. This allows for vehicle-to-grid communication, the famous vehicle-to-grid. Open E-Mobility is a privileged partner of the Mobena project – VEDECOM
This list of standards and protocols is not fixed and can still evolve with time. We are still at the beginning of the democratization of this technology. It is therefore certain that new protocols will emerge to further enrich the electric vehicle charging industry.